This podcast moderated by David Wessel of Brookings is very informative. It’s an assessment of the success and failure of several programs of aid to businesses the US government put forth when COVID-19 started to dampen US business activity.
The level of financial support offered to businesses during the pandemic was unprecedented, and clearly kept the decline in consumption less serious than it was feared.
There has been a lot of criticism of these programs, some positive and some negative. It’s important to understand how the programs did work and how they did not. In the future we may be faced with other economic crises and we should know which features worked as intended and which did not, and why not.
It’s a good listen, and there is also a link to a transcript.
How effective was aid to business during COVID-19?
Ships periodically require surveys, which are inspections a lot like your annual car inspection, though a lot of states don’t have them anymore. Key systems of the ship are checked for compliance with safety rules and such things as pollution control equipment. The inspection period for most ships is I believe 5 years. Major surveys occur less often, but result in substantial repairs most of the time. Voyages on the open sea put a great strain on ships’ mechanical structure.
Repairs of any problems must be made before the ship can sail again. Today most surveys are done in China. See the article for the dominance of China in this market.
Covid quarantines for ship surveys are very strict and expensive. China has maintained recently a zero new infections rte for those arising internally. However there have been a few infections from travelers entering the country. That is why the strict regime is being enforced. Ships are a frequent source of infections; the mariners are exposed for a long time, air circulation is not very good in the interior, and mariners are travelers likely to be exposed to new people wherever they land.
So don’t take your ship to China for your survey work.